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//
// This Mode 0 renderer provides a way of drawing directly to a framebuffer
// (similar to Mode 3 and 4) while retaining the flexibility of using other
// backgrounds if needed. It also performs double buffering to avoid tearing
// artifacts and tries to only draw tiles that changed on each frame.
//
// In addition to the frontbuffer (displayed on background 0), a tiled text
// layer is displayed on background 1, which can be used for application
// development or for debug information.
//
// These two layers occupy the first and second background charblocks, leaving
// the remaining two available for other background layers. There are 14KB of
// sprite memory available, since the backbuffer is located at the end of the
// VRAM, but if more space is needed it can be moved to the end of the BG
// charblocks instead as described below.
//

#include "renderer.h"
#include "text.h"

// Keep track of which tiles need to be copied to the frontbuffer.
static u32 dirty_tiles[21] = {0};

// TODO: Allow disable bound checking at compile time.
#define BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(X,Y) if ((X) >= SCREEN_WIDTH || (Y) >= SCREEN_HEIGHT) return;

IWRAM_CODE
void
draw_pixel(size_t x, size_t y, u8 color) {
    BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y);

    // Find row position for the given x/y coordinates.
    size_t tile_x = x / 8;
    size_t tile_y = y / 8;
    size_t start_col = x % 8;
    size_t start_row = y % 8;
    size_t pos = start_row + (tile_x + tile_y * 32) * 8;

    // Update backbuffer.
    size_t shift = start_col * sizeof(u32);
    BACKBUF[pos] = (BACKBUF[pos] & ~(0xF << shift)) | color << shift;

    // Mark tile as dirty.
    dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << tile_x;
}

IWRAM_CODE
void
draw_rect(size_t x0, size_t y0, size_t x1, size_t y1, u8 clr) {
    BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x0, y0);
    BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x1, y1);

    // Find row positions for the given x/y coordinates.
    size_t tile_x0 = x0 / 8;
    size_t tile_y0 = y0 / 8;
    size_t tile_x1 = x1 / 8;
    size_t tile_y1 = y1 / 8;
    size_t start_col0 = x0 % 8;
    size_t start_col1 = x1 % 8;
    size_t start_row0 = y0 % 8;
    size_t start_row1 = y1 % 8;

    // Get a pointer to the backbuffer and the tile row.
    u32 *backbuffer0 = &BACKBUF[start_row0 + (tile_x0 + tile_y0 * 32) * 8];
    u32 *backbuffer1 = &BACKBUF[start_row1 + (tile_x0 + tile_y1 * 32) * 8];

    size_t dx = tile_x1 - tile_x0;
    size_t dy = tile_y1 - tile_y0;

    // There are 3 cases:
    //     1. Lines fit on a single tile.
    //     2. Lines go through 2 tiles, both require partial row updates.
    //     3. Lines go through 3 or more tiles, first and last tiles use partial
    //        row updates, rows in the middle can write the.
    if (dx < 1) {
        u32 row_mask = 0xFFFFFFFF;
        row_mask >>= (7 - start_col1 - dx) * 4;
        row_mask &= 0xFFFFFFFF << start_col0 * 4;
        u32 row = (0x11111111 * clr) & row_mask;
        backbuffer0[0] = (backbuffer0[0] & ~row_mask) | row;
        backbuffer1[0] = (backbuffer1[0] & ~row_mask) | row;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y0] |= 1 << tile_x0;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y1] |= 1 << tile_x0;
    } else {
        size_t shift_left = start_col0 * 4;
        size_t shift_right = (7 - start_col1) * 4;
        u32 row_mask = 0xFFFFFFFF;
        u32 row = 0x11111111 * clr;
        backbuffer0[0] = (backbuffer0[0] & ~(row_mask << shift_left)) | (row << shift_left);
        backbuffer1[0] = (backbuffer1[0] & ~(row_mask << shift_left)) | (row << shift_left);
        dirty_tiles[tile_y0] |= 1 << tile_x0;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y1] |= 1 << tile_x0;
        for (size_t i = 1; i < dx; i++) {
            backbuffer0[i * 8] = row;
            backbuffer1[i * 8] = row;
            dirty_tiles[tile_y0] |= 1 << (tile_x0 + i);
            dirty_tiles[tile_y1] |= 1 << (tile_x0 + i);
        }
        backbuffer0[dx * 8] = (backbuffer0[dx * 8] & ~(row_mask >> shift_right)) | (row >> shift_right);
        backbuffer1[dx * 8] = (backbuffer1[dx * 8] & ~(row_mask >> shift_right)) | (row >> shift_right);
        dirty_tiles[tile_y0] |= 1 << (tile_x0 + dx);
        dirty_tiles[tile_y1] |= 1 << (tile_x0 + dx);
    }
    // The vertical line cases are analogous to the horizontal ones.
    u32 row_mask_left = 0xF << start_col0 * 4;
    u32 row_mask_right = 0xF << start_col1 * 4;
    u32 row_left = (0x11111111 * clr) & row_mask_left;
    u32 row_right = (0x11111111 * clr) & row_mask_right;
    if (dy < 1) {
        for (size_t i = 1; i < y1 - y0; i++, backbuffer0++) {
            backbuffer0[1] = (backbuffer0[1] & ~row_mask_left) | row_left;
            backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] = (backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] & ~row_mask_right) | row_right;
        }
    } else {
        for (size_t i = 1; i < (8 - start_row0); i++, backbuffer0++) {
            backbuffer0[1] = (backbuffer0[1] & ~row_mask_left) | row_left;
            backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] = (backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] & ~row_mask_right) | row_right;
        }
        backbuffer0 += 8 * 31;
        for (size_t j = 1; j < dy; j++) {
            for (size_t i = 0; i < 8; i++, backbuffer0++) {
                backbuffer0[1] = (backbuffer0[1] & ~row_mask_left) | row_left;
                backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] = (backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] & ~row_mask_right) | row_right;
            }
            backbuffer0 += 8 * 31;
            dirty_tiles[tile_y0 + j] |= 1 << tile_x0;
            dirty_tiles[tile_y0 + j] |= 1 << (tile_x0 + dx);
        }
        for (size_t i = 0; i < start_row1; i++, backbuffer0++) {
            backbuffer0[1] = (backbuffer0[1] & ~row_mask_left) | row_left;
            backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] = (backbuffer0[1 + 8 * dx] & ~row_mask_right) | row_right;
        }
    }
}

IWRAM_CODE
void
draw_tile(size_t x, size_t y, Tile *tile, bool merge) {
    BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y);

    // Find row position for the given x/y coordinates.
    size_t tile_x = x / 8;
    size_t tile_y = y / 8;
    size_t start_col = x % 8;
    size_t start_row = y % 8;

    // Get a pointer to the backbuffer and the tile row.
    size_t pos = start_row + (tile_x + tile_y * 32) * 8;
    u32 *backbuffer = &BACKBUF[pos];
    u32 *row = tile;

    // This will blend all colors weirdly if using tiles that contain colors
    // higher than 1.
    size_t shift_left = start_col * 4;
    size_t shift_right = (8 - start_col) * 4;
    u32 row_mask = merge ? 0 : 0xFFFFFFFF << shift_left;

    // Draw the tiles. There are 4 possible cases:
    //     1. The tile is exactly at the tile boundary.
    //     2. The tile spans 2 tiles horizontally.
    //     3. The tile spans 2 tiles vertically.
    //     4. The tile spans 4 tiles.
    if (start_col == 0 && start_row == 0) {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < (8 - start_row); i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | row[i];
        }
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << tile_x;
    } else if (start_row == 0) {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < 8; i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | (row[i] << shift_left);
            backbuffer[8] = (backbuffer[8] & row_mask) | (row[i] >> shift_right);
        }
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << tile_x;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << (tile_x + 1);
    } else if (start_col == 0) {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < (8 - start_row); i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | row[i];
        }
        backbuffer += 8 * 31;
        for (size_t i = (8 - start_row); i < 8; i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | row[i];
        }
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << tile_x;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y + 1] |= 1 << tile_x;
    } else {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < (8 - start_row); i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | (row[i] << shift_left);
            backbuffer[8] = (backbuffer[8] & row_mask) | (row[i] >> shift_right);
        }
        backbuffer += 8 * 31;
        for (size_t i = (8 - start_row); i < 8; i++, backbuffer++) {
            BOUNDCHECK_SCREEN(x, y + i);
            backbuffer[0] = (backbuffer[0] & ~row_mask) | (row[i] << shift_left);
            backbuffer[8] = (backbuffer[8] & row_mask) | (row[i] >> shift_right);
        }
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << tile_x;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y] |= 1 << (tile_x + 1);
        dirty_tiles[tile_y + 1] |= 1 << tile_x;
        dirty_tiles[tile_y + 1] |= 1 << (tile_x + 1);
    }
}

IWRAM_CODE
void
flip_buffer(void) {
    // Copy dirty tiles from the backbuffer to the frontbuffer.
    Tile *dst = FRONTBUF;
    Tile *src = BACKBUF;
    for (size_t j = 0; j < 20; ++j) {
        if (dirty_tiles[j] == 0) {
            continue;
        }
        for (size_t i = 0, k = 1; i < 30; ++i, k <<= 1) {
            if (dirty_tiles[j] & k) {
                dst[i + j * 32] = src[i + j * 32];
            }
        }
        dirty_tiles[j] = 0;
    }
}

void
renderer_init(void) {
    // Initialize display mode and bg palette.
    DISP_CTRL = DISP_MODE_0 | DISP_BG_0 | DISP_BG_1 | DISP_OBJ;

    // Initialize backgrounds.
    BG_CTRL(0) = BG_CHARBLOCK(0) | BG_SCREENBLOCK(FRONTBUF_SB) | BG_PRIORITY(1);
    BG_CTRL(1) = BG_CHARBLOCK(1) | BG_SCREENBLOCK(FONT_SB) | BG_PRIORITY(0);

    // Use DMA to clear front and back buffers as well as the font memory map.
    dma_fill(FRONTBUF, 0, KB(20), 3);
    dma_fill(FRONTBUF_TILEMAP, 0, KB(2), 3);
    dma_fill(BACKBUF, 0, KB(20), 3);
    dma_fill(FONT_DATA, 0, KB(8), 3);
    dma_fill(FONT_TILEMAP, FONT_OFFSET, KB(2), 3);

    // Initialize default palette.
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[0] = COLOR_BLACK;
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[1] = COLOR_WHITE;
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[2] = COLOR_RED;
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[3] = COLOR_BLUE;
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[4] = COLOR_CYAN;
    PAL_BUFFER_BG[5] = COLOR_GREY;

    // Initialize background memory map for frontbuffer and font backgorund.
    for (size_t i = 0; i < 32 * 20; ++i) {
        FRONTBUF_TILEMAP[i] = i;
    }

    // Initialize text engine.
    txt_init(FONT_DATA, FONT_TILEMAP, FONT_OFFSET);
}